Torcolo di San Costanzo, a medieval sweet bread from Umbria

San Lorenzo, Sant'Ercolano and San Costanzo sculpted in the XIV century grand entrance portal of Perugia's city hall.
San Lorenzo, Sant’Ercolano and San Costanzo sculpted in the XIV century grand entrance portal of Perugia’s city hall, Palazzo dei Priori.

My hometown Perugia is well protected from evil. We have 3 patron Saints to look out for us: San Lorenzo, Sant’Ercolano and San Costanzo.

Nationwide, San Lorenzo is the most popular. One of the Seven Deacons of Rome, and therefore among the first to have been subjected to martyrdom, he is the patron of over 200 towns and villages in Italy. The legend says that the Prefect of Rome condemned him to a slow, cruel death, tied on top of an iron grill over a slow fire in the night of the falling stars, August 10.

A splendid stained glass round window of Perugia's Cathedral , made at the historic Glass studio Moretti Caselli, representing the marytrdom of Laurence of Rome.
A splendid stained glass round window of Perugia’s Cathedral, made at the historic glass Studio Moretti Caselli, represents the martyrdom of Laurence.

Sant Ercolano and San Costanzo, who were bishops of Perugia in the early centuries of Christianity, both suffered a more standard martyrdom, decapitation. One must reflect – once again – that being of the wrong religion has never been an advantage in human history. The Saints must be sad to be up there and see that after thousand of years they lost their heads for nothing.

But I digress, so let’s go back to the nice side of the cult. Of the three Saints, San Costanzo – who is celebrated on January 29 – has the most cheerful tradition.

His image is believed to predict marriages <3

San Costanzo's image occupies the center place of the church's XIX century altarpiece
San Costanzo’s image occupies the center place of the church’s XIX century altarpiece. You wish to be married soon? just look carefully.

If an engaged couple visits the Church of San Costanzo on the day of his feast and the Saint winks at the young woman (and only she can see the wink), the couple will be married within the year.

Interior of the San Costanzo Church in Perugia built on the ancient burial site of the Saint
Interior of the San Costanzo Church in Perugia built on the ancient burial site of the Saint

If not, the young man is expected to gift her fiance of a ring-shaped leavened cake filled with nuts and dried fruit and flavored with aniseed. Il torcolo di San Costanzo, a true symbol of Perugian cuisine, is a wonderful symbol of sustenance and well-being.

During the celebrations, which include a night procession and a fair, thousand of torcolo cakes are baked in Perugia. There are cakes piled high in almost every shop and the medieval streets smell beautifully of sugar and spices.

The citizens of Perugia enjoying the San Costanzo fair and a free tasting of the torcolo cake
The citizens of Perugia enjoying the San Costanzo fair and a free tasting of the torcolo cake

My recipe is slightly different from the official one (see video below). I like to use artisan flour slowly leavened with a minimal amount of yeast. Also, I prefer organic brown sugar and my home-made candied orange peel. The irresistible aroma and melt in the mouth softness is the same, but more intense and less refined than the modern version. It’s rustic and exotic at the same time, just like I imagine a medieval cake should be.

rich sweet bread from Perugia to celebrate the city's patron saint


  • 200 g ( 1 and 1/3) strong/bread flour
  • 150 g (1 cup) Italian 0 flour,  all-purpose, or white stone ground flour
  • 200 ml (3/4 cup) water
  • 3 g yeast (3/4 teaspoon)
  • 3 g /1/2 teaspoon) salt
  • 80 g (6 tablespoon) organic brown sugar
  • 40 g ( 3 tablespoon) butter
  • 50 g (1/2 cup) extra virgin olive oil
  • 70 g (1/3 to 1/2 cup)raisin
  • 60 g (1/3 to 1/2 cup) candied citron, diced
  • 60 g (1/3 to 1/2 cup) candied orange peel, diced
  • 70 g (1/3 to 1/2 cup) chopped almonds or pine nuts
  • 2 tablespoon aniseed
  • 1 egg for glazing

Combine the flours and yeast in the bowl of a food processor or stand mixer. Stir in the water a little at the time until the dough forms into a firm ball. The quantity of water depends on the strength of the flours.  Stronger flours will need more water to form the ball. Alternatively mix ingredients by hand in a large bowl, then turn the dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead, adding more flour if necessary, until smooth and elastic, about 10 minutes.

Transfer in an oiled bowl, cover and keep in a warm area of the kitchen until doubled in volume, 1 1/2 to 2 hours. If the  the weather is cold and humid prepare the dough one day earlier and let it rise overnight.

Dessolve the brown sugar and salt in a small amount of water. Bring the butter at room temperature. Dice the citron, orange peel  and nuts and mix with the aniseed and one or two tablespoon of water or limoncello or brandy.

Transfer the raised dough into the mixer and add the olive oil and butter, mix until well incorporated. Add the aniseed-fruit mixture and stir. Alternatively proceed by hand like in the video.You will notice that at this stage the dough is a lot softer because of the oil and butter. Transfer back into an oiled bowl, cover and let it rise again 3-4 hours.

Roll the dough into a log, twist it then pinch it gently into a ring.

Line a cookie sheet with parchment paper. Arrange the bread on the paper. Let the dough rise in warm draft-free area until almost doubled in volume, 45 to 60 minutes. Whisk the egg and use it to brush the bread.

Preheat oven to 180° C (375°F). Bake the bread until the top is golden, about 45 minutes. Serve at room temperature. Serves 8-10.

















  1. I am not on Facebook, but live in Virginia and would love to come see you when you are in Richmond. Can you send me the details of where/when you will be there?

    Thank you so very much!


    Geneva Richardson

    • Hi Geneva, thank you very much, I am sending you an email today. However sometimes comcast blocks my messages, so if you don’t hear anything form me, please check your spam folder. Hopefully we’ll cross paths!

  2. Letizia Darling

    I am soooooooooo excited and happy to see that you will be in our area soon. Yay! I will get to see you, be in your company, introduce my friends. I want you to come to Cape Cod and stay as our house guest. Let’s talk.




  3. I am not on Facebook anymore. Please let me know of any events in Richmond. I am sorry I was not able to provide more information about venues. I hope we will meet again in Richmond.

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