POTATURA. Spring is making some appearance and it’s now time to prune olive trees. Some of the locals have actually started in November, just after harvest. Some have run to the fields during the very few sunny days we have had during this rainy winter. We have a small olive grove, so we can take it easy and wait for the nice weather. Pruning is important as it’s needed to remove the non productive shoots and to give light and air to the tree. This will maximize production and minimize the onset of disease due to excess humidity. We still have plenty delicious olive oil from last year, but we look with anticipation to the next harvest. This is for us the first celebration of spring which will come later in its full glory.
Tag Archives: olive tree cultivation
If one loves Mediterranean food one loves olive oil. As promised, I will now tell you what to do if you do not live near our deep blue sea and want to make a wonderful bruschetta like that one above.
If you are looking for a good quality extra virgin olive oil, you might need to visit several specialty shops or well stocked supermarkets. If you find a promising bottle, you need to study the label in order to understand where your oil comes from. The more details you get about its origin, the better -though probably more pricey – the oil will be.
A good extra virgin olive oil has a unique flavor that is due to the combination of climate, soil, farming methods and plant cultivars in a specific area
Big brand oils are mostly made of mixtures. In contrast, single estate oils or oils produced by small coops of growers are made with olives of a single district. That extra virgin will have the distinctive character that belongs to its land. A complex flavor that enhances the food on which that oil is used.
If you are unable to obtain a single estate oil, look for a DOP. The acronym DOP indicates that the European Community has assigned a “protected origin designation” or appellation to the area of production. For example, in our area the label of a certified extra virgin will indicate not only the region Umbria but also the district “Assisi-Spoleto”. By European regulation, high quality extra virgin in this district can only be made using 3 cultivars of olive trees, Moraiolo, Leccino and Frantoio. Each cultivar contributes to the taste and balance of flavor. Oil from Moraiolo is intensely peppery, that one from Frantoio is fruity and from Leccino is mildly sweet.
Basically if you buy certified DOP or single estate you should be able to get back home with a reasonable bottle of extra virgin. Check the production date, as oil must be as fresh as possible. If budget allows take two brands to compare.
On your way home, do not forget to buy some fresh bread. White crusty Italian style, no baguette please.
To determine the quality, taste on a little plain bread at room temperature or even better directly from a teaspoon. Then finally, take a whole slice, toast it, rub it with a clove of fresh garlic, drizzle with the liquid gold you have conquered, sprinkle with just a hint of salt an pepper and enjoy your bruschetta when still warm. Relax, good red wine is welcome.
This post is dedicated to my friend Morgana who lost her house in Melbourne’s fires last Saturday. Coraggio Morgana!
The definition of what is a good olive oil has changed a lot over the last decades in Italy.
In the past, the majority of Italians were poor farmers and lived on a simple diet of grains, pulses and vegetables. In the Center and South of Italy, people used as much olive oil as they could afford to increase the caloric content of their food. Therefore, they preferred their oil to be rather bland and cooked it for a long time or at high temperatures so that none of its flavor was left.
To date, most of the big-brand olive oils that are sold in the world are designed to have a bland taste. This is expected to please those users who are not acquainted with the relatively strong flavor of olive oil. Even though these oils are sold as extra virgin, they are obtained by mixing mass produced oils of various origins, especially from Spain and Greece. The label “imported from Italy” or “bottled in Italy” does not mean you are buying a high quality Italian extra virgin oil.
Olive oils that are not virgin – e.g. light olive oil or pure olive oil – are obtained by mixing virgin oils and chemically refined oils. As the refinement process involves the use of solvents like hexane, I really cannot find any good reasons for using these oils in cooking. Of course, there should be no residues of solvents, but I’d rather buy a product obtained with mechanical means such as the extra virgin.
I mean, I do not have to buy olive oil, because we produce it. However, until we produce enough to be able to actually sell it, I promise I will tell you how to buy a good extra virgin. Soon.
Update: from November 2011 we’ll actually be able to sell our wonderful oil, drop me a line if you are interested!
Extra virgin Umbrian olive oil is considered one of the best oils in the world for quality, bouquet and taste.
“Olio nuovo” – new oil- is what we call the olive oil when is just pressed. In contrast with most wines, olive oil is at its best when fresh. Just like we do, most Umbrian olives are picked between the end of October and mid-November. Therefore “new oil” is anything produced and sold in the last part of the year. The new olive oil is fragrant and peppery. After 3-4 months it becomes smoother and slightly sweeter but still intense. A good extra virgin olive oil remains a delicious condiment for at least a year.
Most olive farms in Umbria are rather small, counting anything from 20 to a few hundred trees. People picks olives quickly and brings them to the mill when they have at least 3-400 kg (approx. 650-800 pounds). Mills are owned by cooperatives of farmers or by large farms.
Here below is the mill (frantoio) where we our olives were processed at the beginning of December.
Olives move from right to left in the series of machines above. Whole olives are first washed, then crushed into a pulp and subsequently kneaded to separate oil from water. The crushing machine cannot be opened during operation, so unfortunately I have no picture for it.
The resulting olive paste is subsequently centrifuged and filtered to obtain olive oil. The whole process is kept at relatively low temperature, around 20 C (68 F) to avoid oxidation and loss of flavor. The olive oil is transferred into stainless steel containers and the exhaust olive pulp (pumace) is transported outside.
For more details on classification of olive oils and their production please give a look at this excellent olive oil glossary.
At this stage, while we see the golden liquid filling our tanks, we feel very happy. After many days of hard work, we run home and enjoy the first fragrant slice of bruschetta of the new season.
The mill works 24 h a day for several weeks, these guys are lucky if they are ready for Christmas. Thank you guys!
Ours is a small farm, we have 11 hectares land, about 27 acres. This year we have taken advantage of the last sunny days of the season to harvest olives from our 250 trees. We like to harvest early, between the end of October and the beginning of November, when olives are just turning from green to purple. At this stage olives are rich of oil and aromatic compounds.
The oil will be fruity and peppery with a slightly bitter aftertaste.
Umbrian oil at its best.
Potentially we could produce some 3500 kg/7700 pounds olives. However, most of our olive trees are very young so we presently make only a fraction of that. We pick olives by hand, using small rakes and nets.
We try to pick fast as olives should not be stored too long before processing. However, it takes at least an hour to harvest a tree like that one in this picture below. All for 2-3 bottles oil per mature tree, yeld is 15%.
As our fields are on a fairly steep hill, with all the climbing up and down and carting stuff back to the house at the end of the harvest we are dead tired. Luckily this year we had an energetic helper.
Just like us, she can’t wait to get to the mill and see the results of our efforts.